The DNA also called deoxyribonucleic acid; it is a molecule that consists of genetic instructions. These genetic instructions are used in the reproduction, function, growth and development of all living organisms and microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria. RNA or ribonucleic acid is also a nucleic acid together with DNA that exists alongside other lipids and proteins. These two macromolecules are very essential for all acknowledged kinds of life and mostly the structure of DNA is seen to be a double helix. The double helix structure usually forms because the DNA has two biopolymer strands that form by coiling around one another to create the double helix. DNA is very essential in modern life and as a result it is applied in many fields such as science and technology. This essay seeks to describe the importance of DNA and how it is used in science and technology.
The discovery of DNA is argued to be one of the most essential discoveries ever made in the 20th century. The DNA has improved the diagnosis of diseases and also some genes have been identified to cause certain diseases. DNA has helped parents to identify the paternity of an unborn child and these can be helpful for parents to plan on how the child will be brought up. DNA has helped to solve crime and determine the guilt and innocence of suspects through forensics. In case of a victim who is not recognized as result of accidents or burns, DNA has helped these victims to be identified. DNA is also essential for farmers because new breeds of animals are available to them and these animals are able to resist some diseases. Farmers are also able to produce more crops especially in developing countries where food is becoming scarce.
The DNA is used in science in so many ways. DNA is used in genetics to study genes, the genetic variations, and passing of certain traits from parents to their off springs. DNA has helped scientists to understand the sequence of DNA in human cells which has provided a good means to identify every individual. Studies show that every person has unique genes and because of this every person can be identified through one’s hair, saliva, blood, and semen. Parents can now test DNA to prove whether one is the biological parent of a child or not in case of disputes arising. DNA is also used in Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats or CRISPP in short. CRISPP enables scientists to improve on genomes much better than older ways of editing genomes and this method has helped in changing the germ line of animals, humans, and crops.
The DNA is used too in technology in so many ways. CRISPP method is applied in biotechnology where genes are modified. The genes of plants used for agricultural purpose are modified using genetic engineering expertise. The genes of other animals are modified too using genetic engineering to bring forth Genetically Modified Organisms or GMOs in short.DNA is also used in cloning which involves replicating an organism or cell by using a small part of DNA to produce a clone. This technique has been used to produce animals such as sheep, horse, and goats. DNA has improved the technology of treating cancer and other diseases through early detection of genes associated with certain types of cancer.DNA technology has been applied in insulin manufacturing for people with diabetes. This production of non-human insulin is done in the laboratory by isolation of genes from human cells and then placing it in plasmids. The insulin is produced by bacterial cells from established human codes.
In conclusion DNA is a molecule that consists of genetic instructions. These instructions are used in the reproduction, function, growth and development of all living organisms and microorganisms. DNA is very important in modern life because it is used in many fields such as science and technology. It is argued to be one of the most essential discoveries ever made in the 20th century. Scientists have used the knowledge of DNA to understand the genes of humans, animals and plants. As a result the knowledge has been used to improve the technology of detecting certain diseases such as cancer and early treatment.