In-text citation of MLA style is made with the help of effective combining of paranthetical references and signal phrases. A signal phrase is a phrase that introduces the information taken from some source, such as a summary, quotation or fact. In most cases the signal phrase also includes the author’s name. You can find parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence after the cited material. It obligatory should include the page number of the source, except the cases of using unprinted sources found online.
This guide presents important advice taken from 7th edition of MLA Handbook for Research papers writers.
Kwon says that the Fourth Amendment does not provide employees with any protections from employers’ “unreasonable seizures and searches” (17). In this case the author’s name can be found in the alphabetical list of cited works at the end of the paper. The readers can learn the title of the work and other important information of publication there. In case if the consultation will be needed the page number will take the reader straight to the cited passage.
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Basic Rules For Printed And Online Sources
The system of MLA in-text citation heavily depends on the author’s name and numbers of the page. It was created with print sources in mind. Although a lot of unprinted sources has unclear authorship and doesn’t hace page numbers at all, the rules for their citing are the same. The model presented below shows what to do if your source doesn’t have author or page number. 1. Name the author in a signal phrase. If you have a possibility- introduce the cited material with indication of the author’s name in the signal phrase. It will prepare readers for the source s well as allow the writer to keep the parenthetic citation brief.
Fernand Lane reports that it is not obligatory for employers to use monitoring software for controlling employee’s web-usage. Employers can also “use hidden video cameras that are pointed to employee’s monitor” or even place a camera “so that several monitors are seen at the same time” (247).
The signal phrase is “Frederick Lane reports”. It tells us the author’s name. At the same time the parenthetical citation provides the number of the page in the book where the quoted words may be found. Pay attention that the parenthetical citation is followed by the period. If the quotation has a question mark or exclamation point at the end it is advised to leave this punctuation inside the quotation mark and place the period at the end of the sentence.
2. Present the author’s name in parenthesis. If there is no possibility to name the author in the signal phrase it is better to place the last name of the author together with the page number in the parentheses. There shouldn’t be any punctuation between the page number and the name.
Companies are allowed to monitor every keystroke on the employees ‘ monitors without legal penalty, but as the result they may have to face low morality(Lane 563).
3. If the author is unknown you may either use the title in a signal phrase or present a short its form in the parentheses. Titles of books should be italicized and article titles should be put in quotation marks.
There is one very popular keystroke logging program that performs its functions invisibly for workers and provide the supervisors with all details about employees’ activities online (“Automatically”).
Before you assume that you don’t know the author of the Web source, conduct a piece of detective work. In many cases the author’s name does exist on the web page, it is just not so easy to find. It may be in tiny print at the end of the page or appear on the home page of the site. In case the source you are going to cite is sponsored by some government agency or corporation you should give their name as the author’s.
4. If page number is unknown, you shouldn’t include it. You can provide your citation with the number only in case of using online PDF-files that are numbered.