Every writing style has its peculiar features for bibliography formatting. It is important to keep to the rules if you want your essay to be successful. Below you can find some essential standard formats and examples of basic bibliographic information recommended by APA.
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The list of cited works should be placed at the end of the paper. It should begin on the new page and have a centered title. The entries from your list should be alphabetized by the last name of the author. The best way is to use letter-by-letter style which involves ignoring spaces and other rules of punctuation. In the bibliography list the writer gives the initials of the first and middle names only. In case the name of the author is unknown, it is advised to alphabetize the source by title, ignoring articles in the title name.
Speaking about the text citation, the names of the months should be spelled in the text of the paper. The abbreviated version should be placed in the list of cited works. It is allowed to use either day-month-year style (10 February1996) or month-day-year style (February 22, 1999). However, having done your choice – be consistent. In case of applying month-day-year style do not forget to add comma after mentioning the year unless any other punctuation mark will go there.
Italics or Underlining?
When the reports were written with the help of typewriters, the publication names were underlined as there was no possibility to print italics. The same rule applies to the bibliographies written by hand- the names should be underlined. However, if you use computer to type your bibliography, the names of the bibliography have to be italics. Every time you start working on the new bibliography check the requirements and rules that must be applied with your instructor.
Hanging indentation is the position flush left of every entry’s first line, as well as the indention 1/2″ for the second and subsequent lines. All citations in APA style should have hanging indentions.
Punctuation, Capitalization and Abbreviation
The necessity to use sentence-style capitalization for the titles is specified in APA guidelines. It says that the writer should capitalize only the first word in the title or subtitle. Titles of the periodicals and proper names in the titles are the only exception to this rule. Titles of the periodicals are run in the title case and are followed with the italicized volume number. If the source has more than one author the ampersand (&) is used between the writers’ names. If the source has more than 6 authors – name the first one and use abbreviation “et al” for all the rest. The date of publication should be placed in the parenthesis immediately after the name of the author. The closing parenthesis should end with the period. It is not recommended to italicize, underline or put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works in the terms of linger works.
So the main formula for bibliography writing will look like:
Author’s surname, initials, publication date, title of the book, additional information, city of publication: publishing company.
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