Why Did The Industrial Revolution Began In England
The Industrial Revolution of 18th and the 19th century oversaw the change from manufacturing of products using handmade tools in rural areas, to use of specialized machinery in factories in urban areas. The event that took place in Europe and America saw a massive shift and development of economies for the better. Nevertheless, history has documented its onset to be from England because of various reasons.
First was the growth of population. The evolution of the number of people in Britain was the biggest success of life. Between 1000 and 1700, the population rose to one hundred and twenty-five million individuals in Europe and with an average population growth of 0.15percent. Nevertheless, despite the various calamities occurring such as epidemics, war, and famine, the countries survived by adopting new agricultural practices that ensure enough food provision, people became resistant to some epidemics, and the wars ended. Consequently, life expectancy grew resulting in high populations of people, people that triggered an increase in demand for desired goods and services that led to increased investments and innovations to meet these needs promoting the revolution.
Secondly, was the revolution of agriculture. By 1850, Britain had successfully increased their agricultural productivity to provide enough food for the soaring population. By the 19th century, England had introduced new farming technologies such as seed drills, crop rotation, new seeds and improved livestock breeds. The development supposedly facilitated sustenance of the population further promoting their increase. Additionally, further innovations such as improvement of the plowing method by Jethro Tull and Thomas William and others continually increased up to the onset of use of scientific interventions. These innovations saved on labor and cost and increased yield. Consequently, more citizens had to look for alternative means of income to supplement agriculture.
Thirdly, England enjoyed the political tranquility. Political institutions and peaceful environment played a significant role in the Revolution. Britain enjoyed peace reaped from the presumed right institutions that came into existence after the bloodless revolution of 1688 and the introduction of a bill of rights. These rights saw the onset of long periods of peace and political stability that made the country a conducive environment for businesses. Moreover, the government reinforced the property rights that encouraged increased innovations and trade by overseeing the protection of the innovators through the patent laws and expansion of the Navy. It also introduced financial institutions that provided monetary resources to potential businesses.
The presence of good natural resources instigated the onset of the revolution. The Great Britain boasted of plenty deposits of various resources such as Iron, coal, copper, zinc, and lead in abundance. These resources enabled the country to develop different products and provided opportunities for them to modernize and develop new products. For instance, iron’s primary use was to make agricultural and kitchen tools. However, upon its refining in the 18th century, by Henry Cort, iron, through processes of puddling and rolling strengthened it into a revolutionary product for construction, textile, ship and rail building industries. Coal was a source of power and revolutionized the steam-powered machinery.
The rivers and canals played a crucial role at the beginning of the Revolution. The canals acted as waterways for easier and cheaper mode of transportation of raw materials from other countries and finished products to other nations. Moreover, since the Great Britain’s land was less than 120 kms from water, it made it possible for even the remote parts of the country to be at par economically with highly developed neighboring towns, accordingly, contributing to great improvements.
The industrial revolution in Britain became the foundation of a revolution in other countries. The presence of raw materials, political stability, population growth, means of transportation, and the revolution of agriculture made the country quickly adapt and transition to industrialization.